ronaldo peinlich

Sept. Perez verspricht Rückkehr von Ronaldo zu Real. Obwohl Cristiano Peinlich: Ronaldo-Freistoss landet im Seitenaus. News. - Febr. Das war wenig königlich Real Madrid blamiert sich beim Tabellen Espanyol Barcelona mit einem peinlichen Dabei wird klar: Die B-Elf. 9. Okt. Im Zuge der Vergewaltigungsvorwürfe gegen Cristiano Ronaldo kommen neue Details ans Licht. Ein Dokument belastet den Stürmer. Im Falle.

It has a long history as a form of capital punishment , and many societies have employed it for activities considered criminal such as treason , rebellious actions by slaves, heresy , witchcraft , arson in Japan and sexual transgressions, such as incest or homosexuality.

The best known executions of this type are those where the condemned is bound to a large wooden stake and a fire lit beneath them. For burnings at the stake, if the fire was large for instance, when a number of prisoners were executed at the same time , death often came from carbon monoxide poisoning before flames actually caused lethal harm to the body.

If the fire was small, however, the condemned would burn for some time until death from hypovolemia the loss of blood or other fluids, since extensive burns often require large amounts of intravenous fluid, because the subsequent inflammatory response causes significant capillary fluid leakage and oedema , heatstroke or the simple thermal decomposition of vital body parts.

Other forms of death resulting from exposure to extreme heat are known. For example, pouring substances such as molten metal onto a person or down their throat or into their ears , as well as enclosing persons within, or attaching them to, metal contraptions subsequently heated.

Immersion in a heated liquid as a form of execution is considered distinct from death by burning, and classified as death by boiling. The 18th century BC law code promulgated by Babylonian king Hammurabi specifies several crimes in which death by burning was thought appropriate.

Looters of houses on fire could be cast into the flames, and priestesses who abandoned cloisters and began frequenting inns and taverns could also be punished by being burnt alive.

Furthermore, a man who began committing incest with his mother after the death of his father could be ordered by courts to be burned alive. In Ancient Egypt , several incidents of burning alive perceived rebels are attested.

For example, Senusret I r. Under the civil war flaring under Takelot II more than a thousand years later, the Crown Prince Osorkon showed no mercy, and burned several rebels alive.

Jon Manchip White , however, did not think capital judicial punishments were often carried out, pointing to the fact that the pharaoh had to personally ratify each verdict.

Then he was placed on a bed of thorns and burnt alive. In the Middle Assyrian period , paragraph 40 in a preserved law text concerns the obligatory unveiled face for the professional prostitute, and the concomitant punishment if she violated that by veiling herself the way wives were to dress in public:.

A prostitute shall not be veiled. Whoever sees a veiled prostitute shall seize her For the Neo-Assyrians , mass executions seem to have been not only designed to instill terror and to enforce obedience, but also as proof of their might.

I cut off their hands, I burned them with fire, a pile of the living men and of heads over against the city gate I set up, men I impaled on stakes, the city I destroyed and devastated, I turned it into mounds and ruin heaps, the young men and the maidens in the fire I burned.

Tamar saves herself by proving that Judah is himself the father of her child. In the Book of Jubilees , the same story is basically told, with some intriguing differences, according to Caryn A.

In Hebraic law, death by burning was prescribed for ten forms of sexual crimes: In the Mishnah , the following manner of burning the criminal is described:.

The obligatory procedure for execution by burning: They immersed him in dung up to his knees, rolled a rough cloth into a soft one and wound it about his neck.

One pulled it one way, one the other until he opened his mouth. Thereupon one ignites the lead wick and throws it in his mouth, and it descends to his bowels and sears his bowels.

That is, the person dies from being fed molten lead. In the 6th century AD collection of the sayings and rulings of the pre-eminent jurists from earlier ages, the Digest , a number of crimes are regarded as punishable by death by burning.

The 3rd century jurist Ulpian , for example, says that enemies of the state, and deserters to the enemy are to be burned alive. His rough contemporary, the juristical writer Callistratus mentions that arsonists are typically burnt, as well as slaves who have conspired against the well-being of their masters this last also, on occasion, being meted out to free persons of "low rank".

An example of this is the earliest chronicle of a martyrdom, that of Polycarp. The man would be burnt alive without the possibility of appeal, and the girl would receive the same treatment if she had participated willingly.

Nurses who had corrupted their female wards and led them to sexual encounters would have molten lead poured down their throats.

Beginning in the early 3rd century BC, Greek and Roman writers have commented on the purported institutionalized child sacrifice the North African Carthaginians are said to have performed in honour of the gods Baal Hammon and Tanit.

The earliest writer, Cleitarchus is among the most explicit. As it did so, the limbs of the infant contracted and the face was distorted into a sort of laughing grimace, hence called "the act of laughing".

However, some scholars have argued that these findings are not evidence of systematic child sacrifice, and that estimated figures of ancient natural infant mortality with cremation afterwards and reverent separate burial might be the real historical basis behind the hostile reporting from non-Carthaginians.

A late charge of the imputed sacrifice is found by the North African bishop Tertullian , who says that child sacrifices were still carried out, in secret, in the countryside at his time, 3rd century AD.

According to Julius Caesar , the ancient Celts practiced the burning alive of humans in a number of settings.

For example, in Book 6, chapter 16, he writes of the Druidic sacrifice of criminals within huge wicker frames shaped as men:. Others have figures of vast size, the limbs of which formed of osiers they fill with living men, which being set on fire, the men perish enveloped in the flames.

They consider that the oblation of such as have been taken in theft, or in robbery, or any other offence, is more acceptable to the immortal gods; but when a supply of that class is wanting, they have recourse to the oblation of even the innocent.

Slightly later, in Book 6, chapter 19, Caesar also says the Celts perform, on the occasion of death of great men, the funeral sacrifice on the pyre of living slaves and dependants ascertained to have been "beloved by them".

It is said Orgetorix committed suicide to avoid that fate. Throughout the 12th—14th centuries, a number of non-Christian peoples living around the Eastern Baltic Sea , such as Old Prussians and Lithuanians were charged by Christian writers with performing human sacrifice.

For example, Pope Gregory IX issued a papal bull denouncing an alleged practice among the Prussians, that girls were dressed in fresh flowers and wreaths and were then burned alive as offerings to evil spirits.

Under 6th-century emperor Justinian I , the death penalty had been decreed for impenitent Manicheans , but a specific punishment was not made explicit.

By the 7th century, however, those found guilty of "dualist heresy" could risk being burned at the stake. Civil authorities burned persons judged to be heretics under the medieval Inquisition.

Burning heretics had become customary practice in the latter half of the twelfth century in continental Europe, and death by burning became statutory punishment from the early 13th century.

Death by burning for heretics was made positive law by Pedro II of Aragon in In , Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor , made burning a legal alternative, and in , it became the principal punishment in the Empire.

In Sicily, the punishment was made law in , whereas in France, Louis IX made it binding law in As England in the 15th century grew weary of the teachings of John Wycliffe and the Lollards , kings, priests, and parliaments reacted with fire.

In , Parliament passed the De heretico comburendo act, which can be loosely translated as "Regarding the burning of heretics. The Fire and Faggot Parliament met in May at Grey Friars Priory in Leicester to lay out the notorious Suppression of Heresy Act , enabling the burning of heretics by making the crime enforceable by the Justices of the peace.

John Oldcastle , a prominent Lollard leader, was not saved from the gallows by his old friend King Henry V. Oldcastle was hanged and his gallows burned in Jan Hus was burned at the stake after being accused at the Roman Catholic Council of Constance —18 of heresy.

The ecumenical council also decreed that the remains of John Wycliffe , dead for 30 years, should be exhumed and burned. This posthumous execution was carried out in Several incidents are recorded of massacres on Jews from the 12th through 16th centuries in which they were burned alive, often on account of the blood libel.

In in Blois , for example, 51 Jews were burned alive the entire adult community. In , King Philip Augustus ordered around Jews burnt alive.

One libel was that the Jews had poisoned the wells. In , as panic grew along with the increasing death toll from the plague, general massacres, but also specifically mass burnings, began to occur.

Six hundred Jews were burnt alive in Basel alone. A large mass burning occurred in Strasbourg , where several hundred Jews were burnt alive in what became known as the Strasbourg massacre.

A Jewish male, Johannes Pfefferkorn, met a particularly gruesome death in in Halle. He had been charged with a number of crimes, such as having impersonated a priest for twenty years, performed host desecration , stolen Christian children to be tortured and killed by other Jews, poisoning 13 people and poisoning wells.

He was lashed to a pillar in such a way that he could run about it. Then, a ring of glowing coal was made around him, a fiery ring that was gradually pushed ever closer to him, until he was roasted to death.

Not only Jews could be victims of mass hysteria on charges like that of poisoning wells. This particular charge, well-poisoning, was the basis for a large scale hunt of lepers in France.

The lepers were rounded up and burned alive. Jews became tangentially included as well; at Chinon alone, Jews were burnt alive. The Spanish Inquisition was established in , with the aim of preserving Catholic orthodoxy; some of its principal targets were " Marranos ", formally converted Jews thought to have relapsed into Judaism, or the Moriscos , formally converted Muslims thought to have relapsed into Islam.

Estimates of how many were executed on behest of the Spanish Inquisition have been offered from early on; historian Hernando del Pulgar —c.

In November , Marranos were burnt publicly at the same place, their property confiscated by the Church. If the Jew "confessed his heresy", the Church would show mercy, and he would be strangled prior to the burning.

In Sicily, in —15, 79 were burnt at the stake, while from to , Maranos were condemned to be burned alive. In , five Moriscos were burned at the stake on Majorca , the images of a further four were also burnt in effigy , since the actual individuals had managed to flee.

Its aim was to protect Catholic orthodoxy among new converts to Christianity, and retain hold on the old, particularly against "Judaizing" deviancy.

From the 17th century, Europeans were shocked at the tales of how brutal and extensive the activities of the Inquisition were. From the 12th to the 18th centuries, various European authorities legislated and held judicial proceedings against sexual crimes such as sodomy or bestiality ; often, the prescribed punishment was that of death by burning.

Many scholars think that the first time death by burning appeared within explicit codes of law for the crime of sodomy was at the ecclesiastical Council of Nablus in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Here, if public repentance were done, the death penalty might be avoided. The Partidas of King Alfonso "El Sabio" condemned sodomites to be castrated and hung upside down to die from the bleeding, following the old testament phrase "their blood shall be upon them".

In Venice , the first burning took place in , and a monk was burnt as late as The last case in France where a man was condemned to be burned for a murderous rape of a boy occurred in Crackdowns and the public burning of a couple of homosexuals might lead to local panic, and persons thus inclined fleeing from the place.

The traveller William Lithgow witnessed such a dynamic when he visited Malta in The fifth day of my staying here, I saw a Spanish soldier and a Maltezen boy burnt in ashes, for the public profession of sodomy; and long before night, there were above an hundred bardassoes, whorish boys, that fled away to Sicily in a galliot, for fear of fire; but never one bugeron stirred, being few or none there free of it.

The actual punishment meted out to, for example, pederasts could differ according to status. While both in and Augsburg two men were burned alive for their offenses, a rather different procedure was meted out to four clerics in the case guilty of the same offence: Instead of being burnt alive, they were locked into a wooden casket that was hung up in the Perlachturm and they starved to death in that manner.

A number of crimes were punishable with death by burning, such as coin forgery, arson, and sexual acts "contrary to nature". Some feet above the actual pyre, attached to a stake, a wooden chamber had been constructed, into which the delinquent was placed.

Pipes or chimneys, filled with sulphuric material led up to the chamber, and that was first lit, so that Thomas died from inhaling the sulphuric smoke, rather than being strictly burnt alive, before his body was consumed by the general fire.

Although Thomas is regarded as the last to have been actually executed by means of fire in this case, through suffocation , the couple Johann Christoph Peter Horst and his lover Friederike Louise Christiane Delitz , who had made a career of robberies in the confusion made by their acts of arson, were condemned to be burnt alive in Berlin 28 May They were, however, according to Gustav Radbruch , secretly strangled just prior to being burnt, namely when their arms and legs were tied fast to the stake.

Burning was used by Christians during the witch-hunts of Europe. The penal code known as the Constitutio Criminalis Carolina decreed that sorcery throughout the Holy Roman Empire should be treated as a criminal offence, and if it purported to inflict injury upon any person the witch was to be burnt at the stake.

In , Augustus, Elector of Saxony imposed the penalty of burning for witchcraft of every kind, including simple fortunetelling. Furthermore, it is solidly established that the peak period of witch-hunts was the century —, with a slow increase preceding it, from the 15th century onward, as well as a sharp drop following it, with "witch-hunts" having basically fizzled out by the first half of the 18th century.

In Jutland , the mainland part of Denmark, more than half the recorded cases of witchcraft in the 16th and 17th centuries occurred after Rough estimates says about a thousand persons were executed due to convictions for witchcraft in the —s, but it is not wholly clear if all of the transgressors were burned to death.

Edward Wightman , a Baptist from Burton on Trent , was the last person burned at the stake for heresy in England in Lichfield, Staffordshire on 11 April For example, it did not exist in 14th century England, and when the bishops in England petitioned King Richard II to institute death by burning for heretics in , he flatly refused, and no one was burnt for heresy during his reign.

The traditional punishment for women found guilty of treason was to be burned at the stake , where they did not need to be publicly displayed naked, whereas men were hanged, drawn and quartered.

The jurist William Blackstone argued as follows for the differential punishment of females vs. For as the decency due to sex forbids the exposing and public mangling of their bodies, their sentence which is to the full as terrible to sensation as the other is to be drawn to the gallows and there be burned alive [86].

Commenting on the 18th century execution practice, Frank McLynn says that most convicts condemned to burning were not burnt alive, and that the executioners made sure the women were dead before consigning them to the flames.

The last to have been condemned to death for "petty treason" was Mary Bailey, whose body was burned in The last woman to be convicted for "high treason", and have her body burnt, in this case for the crime of coin forgery, was Catherine Murphy in In this case, one account says this happened because the executioner accidentally set fire to the pyre before he had hanged Hayes properly.

Hayes, internally somewhat divergent. The following excerpt is one example:. This special interest of the king resulted in the North Berwick witch trials , which led more than seventy people to be accused of witchcraft in Scotland due to inclement weather.

James sailed in to Denmark to meet his betrothed, Anne of Denmark , who, ironically, is believed by some to have secretly converted to Roman Catholicism herself from Lutheranism around , although historians are divided on whether she ever was received into the Roman Catholic faith.

The last to be executed as a witch in Scotland was Janet Horne in , condemned to death for using her own daughter as a flying horse in order to travel.

Janet Horne was burnt alive in a tar barrel. Petronilla de Meath c. Petronilla was tortured and forced to proclaim that she and Kyteler were guilty of witchcraft.

Petronilla was then flogged and eventually burnt at the stake on 3 November , in Kilkenny , Ireland. Kyteler was charged by the Bishop of Ossory , Richard de Ledrede, with a wide slate of crimes, from sorcery and demonism to the murders of several husbands.

She was accused of having illegally acquired her wealth through witchcraft , which accusations came principally from her stepchildren, the children of her late husbands by their previous marriages.

The trial predated any formal witchcraft statute in Ireland, thus relying on ecclesiastical law which treated witchcraft as heresy rather than English common law which treated it as a felony.

Under torture, Petronilla claimed she and her mistress applied a magical ointment to a wooden beam, which enabled both women to fly.

She was then forced to proclaim publicly that Lady Alice and her followers were guilty of witchcraft. Her husband claimed to have slain only the changeling.

The gruesome nature of the case prompted extensive press coverage. The trial was closely followed by newspapers in both Ireland and Britain.

Indigenous North Americans often used burning as a form of execution, against members of other tribes or white settlers during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Roasting over a slow fire was a customary method. In Massachusetts , there are two known cases of burning at the stake. First, in , a slave named Maria tried to kill her owner by setting his house on fire.

She was convicted of arson and burned at the stake in Roxbury. Second, in , a group of slaves had conspired and killed their owner, with servants Mark and Phillis executed for his murder.

Mark was hanged and his body gibbeted , and Phillis burned at the stake, at Cambridge. The sentence was commuted on appeal to burning after death by stangulation.

In New York, several burnings at the stake are recorded, particularly following suspected slave revolt plots. In , one woman was burnt and one man hanged.

In the aftermath of the New York Slave Revolt of , 20 people were burnt one of the leaders slowly roasted, before he died after 10 hours of torture [] and during the alleged slave conspiracy of , at least 13 slaves were burnt at the stake.

They usually dealt with the chieftains and nobles in the following way: Apparently, some of the defeated rebels were burned alive, while others were gibbeted alive, left to die of thirst and starvation.

In , nine African slaves at Tobago were found complicit of murdering a white man. Eight of them had first their right arms chopped off, and were then burned alive bound to stakes, according to the report of an eyewitness.

Painting a dark picture of the condition of slaves in Suriname, he mentions in particular that as late as in , just two years previously, "three Negroes were burnt alive".

The Greek War of Independence in the s contained several instances of death by burning. When the Greeks in April captured a corvette near Hydra, the Greeks chose to roast to death the 57 Ottoman crew members.

After the fall of Tripolitsa in September , European officers were horrified to note that not only were Muslims suspected of hiding money being slowly roasted after having had their arms and legs cut off but, in one instance, three Muslim children were roasted over a fire while their parents were forced to watch.

On their part, the Ottomans committed many similar acts; for example, in retaliation they gathered up Greeks in Constantinople, throwing several of them into huge ovens, baking them to death.

Tulayha had a strong following which was, however, soon quashed in the so-called Ridda Wars. He himself escaped, though, and later was reconverted to Islam, but many of his rebel followers were burnt to death; his mother chose to embrace the same fate.

A number of monks are said to have been burnt alive in Tunis and Morocco in the 13th century. In , two English monks, Brothers Rodulph and Berengarius, after having secured the release of some 60 captives, were charged with being English spies, and were burnt alive on 9 September.

In , Brothers Patrick and William, again having freed captives, but also sought to proselytize among Muslims, were burnt alive in Morocco.

In , 11 Catholic monks were burnt alive in Tunis. Several other cases are reported. The French traveller Jean de Thevenot , traveling the East in the s, says: A Turke forsaking his Fayth and a Christian speaking or doing anything against the law of Mahomett are burnt with fyer.

De Thevenot says Christians committing blasphemy against Islam were impaled, rather than burnt, if they do not convert to Islam. Considering these heretical, he reviled them with curses.

While preparing the fire for their execution, Fahreddin accidentally set fire to his beard. However the Hurufis were burnt to death.

John Braithwaite , staying in Morocco in the late s, says that apostates from Islam would be burnt alive:.

THOSE that can be proved after Circumcision to have revolted, are stripped quite naked, then anointed with Tallow, and with a Chain about the Body, brought to the Place of Execution, where they are burnt.

Similarly, he notes that non-Muslims entering mosques or being blasphemous against Islam will be burnt, unless they convert to Islam.

His widow made her woes clear in a letter to the British. In in Ifrane , Morocco, 50 Jews preferred to be burned alive, rather than convert to Islam.

He was ordered to be burnt alive unless he converted to Islam, but he refused and was therefore executed on 14 July During his short, violent reign he seized for example, the two interpreters for the Dutch and English consuls, both of them Jews, and roasted them over a slow fire, on charges of conspiracy and espionage.

During a famine in Persia in , the government took severe measures against those trying to profiteer from the misfortune of the populace.

Restaurant owners found guilty of profiteering were slowly roasted on spits, and greedy bakers were baked in their own ovens.

A physician, Dr C. Just prior to my first arrival in Persia, the "Hissam-u-Sultaneh", another uncle of the king, had burned a priest to death for a horrible crime and murder; the priest was chained to a stake, and the matting from the mosques piled on him to a great height, the pile of mats was lighted and burnt freely, but when the mats were consumed the priest was found groaning, but still alive.

The previous cases concern primarily death by burning through contact with open fire or burning material; a slightly different principle is to enclose an individual within, or attach him to, a metal contraption which is subsequently heated.

In the following, some reports of such incidents, or anecdotes about such are included. Perhaps the most infamous example of a brazen bull , which is a hollow metal structure shaped like a bull within which the condemned is put, and then roasted alive as the metal bull is gradually heated up, is the one allegedly constructed by Perillos of Athens for the 6th-century BC tyrant Phalaris at Agrigentum , Sicily.

As the story goes, the first victim of the bull was its constructor Perillos himself. The historian George Grote was among those regarding this story as having sufficient evidence behind it to be true, and points particularly to that the Greek poet Pindar , working just one or two generations after the times of Phalaris refers to the brazen bull.

A bronze bull was, in fact, one of the spoils of victory when the Carthaginians conquered Agrigentum. About years later, for example, in AD , it can be read in an old chronicle about the Visigoths on the Iberian Peninsula and the south of France:.

Burdunellus became a tyrant in Spain and a year later was On 26 March Stewart had a red hot iron crown placed upon his head, was cut in pieces alive, his heart was taken out, and then thrown in a fire.

A papal nuncio , the later Pope Pius II witnessed the execution of Stewart and his associate Sir Robert Graham , and, reportedly, said he was at a loss to determine whether the crime committed by the regicides, or the punishment of them was the greater.

He was bound to a glowing iron throne and a likewise hot iron crown was placed on his head, and he was roasted to death.

In a few English 18th- and 19th-century newspapers and magazines, a tale was circulated about the particularly brutal manner in which a French midwife was put to death on 28 May in Paris.

One detailed account of her supposed execution runs as follows:. A gibbet was erected, under which a fire was made, and the prisoner being brought to the place of execution, was hung up in a large iron cage, in which were also placed sixteen wild cats, which had been catched in the woods for the purpose.

No one however dared to afford her the least assistance; and she continued in this wretched situation for the space of thirty-five minutes, and then expired in unspeakable torture.

At the time of her death, twelve of the cats were expired, and the other four were all dead in less than two minutes afterwards.

However cruel this execution may appear with regard to the poor animals, it certainly cannot be thought too severe a punishment for such a monster of iniquity, as could calmly proceed in acquiring a fortune by the deliberate murder of such numbers of unoffending, harmless innocents.

And if a method of executing murderers, in a manner somewhat similar to this was adapted in England, perhaps the horrid crime of murder might not so frequently disgrace the annals of the present times.

The English story is derived from a pamphlet published in The Spanish in 16th-century Americas gave horrified reports that the Spanish who had been captured by the natives who had learnt of the Spanish thirst for gold had their feet and hands bound, and then molten gold poured down their throats as the victims were mocked: From the 19th century reports from the Kingdom of Siam present day Thailand stated that those who have defrauded the public treasury could have either molten gold or silver poured down their throat.

Some monarchs, it appears, had ordained pouring molten lead down the throats of those who drank anyway, "but it has been found necessary to relax this severity, in order to conciliate the army" [].

Shah Safi I of Persia is said to have abhorred tobacco, and apparently in , he prescribed the punishment of pouring molten lead into the throats of smokers.

According to historian Pushpa Sharma, stealing a horse was considered the most heinous offence within the Mongol army, and the culprit would either have molten lead poured into his ears, or alternatively, his punishment would be the breaking of the spinal cord or beheading.

Apparently, for many centuries, a tradition of devotional self-immolation existed among Buddhist monks in China. One monk who immolated himself in AD , explained his intent a year before, in the following manner:.

The body is like a poisonous plant; it would really be right to burn it and extinguish its life. I have been weary of this physical frame for many a long day.

I vow to worship the buddhas, just like Xijian. There are demonic people Those who look on are overawed and consider it the attainment of enlightenment.

In the first half of the 17th century, Japanese authorities sporadically persecuted Christians, with some executions seeing persons being burnt alive.

At Nagasaki in , for example, some 25 monks were burnt alive, [] and in Edo in , 50 Christians were burnt alive.

Even fateful encounters with cannibals are recorded: In , such was also the end of a previous bishop, Vincent de Valle Viridi. In , the missionary John Watsford wrote a letter about the internecine wars on Fiji , and how captives could be eaten, after being roasted alive:.

At Mbau, perhaps, more human beings are eaten than anywhere else. A few weeks ago they ate twenty-eight in one day. They had seized their wretched victims while fishing, and brought them alive to Mbau, and there half-killed them, and then put them into their ovens.

Some of them made several vain attempts to escape from the scorching flame. The actual manner of the roasting process was described by the missionary pioneer David Cargill, in When about to be immolated, he is made to sit on the ground with his feet under his thighs and his hands placed before him.

He is then bound so that he cannot move a limb or a joint. In this posture he is placed on stones heated for the occasion and some of them are red-hot , and then covered with leaves and earth, to be roasted alive.

When cooked, he is taken out of the oven and, his face and other parts being painted black, that he may resemble a living man ornamented for a feast or for war, he is carried to the temple of the gods and, being still retained in a sitting posture, is offered as a propitiatory sacrifice.

The first reliable evidence for the practice of sati appears from the time of the Gupta Empire AD , when instances of sati began to be marked by inscribed memorial stones.

According to one model of history thinking, the practice of sati only became really widespread with the Muslim invasions of India, and the practice of sati now acquired a new meaning as a means to preserve the honour of women whose men had been slain.

Sashi lays out the argument, "The argument is that the practice came into effect during the Islamic invasion of India, to protect their honor from Muslims who were known to commit mass rape on the women of cities that they could capture successfully.

The British began to compile statistics of the incidences of sati for all their domains from and onwards. The official statistics for Bengal represents that the practice was much more common here than elsewhere, recorded numbers typically in the range per year, up to the year , when the British authorities banned the practice.

Jauhar was a practice among royal Hindu women to prevent capture by Muslim conquerors. The practice of burning widows has not been restricted to the Indian subcontinent; at Bali , the practice was called masatia and, apparently, restricted to the burning of royal widows.

Although the Dutch colonial authorities had banned the practice, one such occasion is attested as late as in , probably for the last time.

Hahn [] wrote that within the O-ndnonga tribe among the Ovambo people in modern-day Namibia , abortion was not used at all in contrast to among the other tribes , and that furthermore, if two young unwed individuals had sex resulting in pregnancy, then both the girl and the boy were "taken out to the bush, bound up in bundles of grass and In , Sir Benjamin Hammett introduced a bill into Parliament to end the practice of judicial burning.

He explained that the year before, as Sheriff of London, he had been responsible for the burning of Catherine Murphy , found guilty of counterfeiting , but that he had allowed her to be hanged first.

He pointed out that as the law stood, he himself could have been found guilty of a crime in not carrying out the lawful punishment and, as no woman had been burnt alive in the kingdom for more than half a century, so could all those still alive who had held an official position at all of the previous burnings.

Ferencz , one of the prosecutors in the Nuremberg trials who, in May , investigated occurrences at the Ebensee concentration camp , and narrated them to Tom Hofmann, a family member and biographer.

He was completely outraged at what the Nazis had done there. When people discovered a SS guard who attempted to flee, they tied him to one of the metal trays used to transport bodies into the crematorium.

They then proceeded to light the oven, and slowly roast the SS guard to death, taking him in and out of the oven several times. Ferencz said to Hofmann that at the time, he was in no position to stop the proceedings of the mob, and frankly admitted that he had not been inclined to try.

Hofmann adds, "There seemed to be no limit to human brutality in wartime. During the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after the end of World War II , a number of massacres against the German minority occurred.

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For as the decency due to sex forbids the exposing and public mangling of their bodies, their sentence which is to the full as terrible to sensation as the other is to be drawn to the gallows and there be burned alive [86].

Commenting on the 18th century execution practice, Frank McLynn says that most convicts condemned to burning were not burnt alive, and that the executioners made sure the women were dead before consigning them to the flames.

The last to have been condemned to death for "petty treason" was Mary Bailey, whose body was burned in The last woman to be convicted for "high treason", and have her body burnt, in this case for the crime of coin forgery, was Catherine Murphy in In this case, one account says this happened because the executioner accidentally set fire to the pyre before he had hanged Hayes properly.

Hayes, internally somewhat divergent. The following excerpt is one example:. This special interest of the king resulted in the North Berwick witch trials , which led more than seventy people to be accused of witchcraft in Scotland due to inclement weather.

James sailed in to Denmark to meet his betrothed, Anne of Denmark , who, ironically, is believed by some to have secretly converted to Roman Catholicism herself from Lutheranism around , although historians are divided on whether she ever was received into the Roman Catholic faith.

The last to be executed as a witch in Scotland was Janet Horne in , condemned to death for using her own daughter as a flying horse in order to travel.

Janet Horne was burnt alive in a tar barrel. Petronilla de Meath c. Petronilla was tortured and forced to proclaim that she and Kyteler were guilty of witchcraft.

Petronilla was then flogged and eventually burnt at the stake on 3 November , in Kilkenny , Ireland. Kyteler was charged by the Bishop of Ossory , Richard de Ledrede, with a wide slate of crimes, from sorcery and demonism to the murders of several husbands.

She was accused of having illegally acquired her wealth through witchcraft , which accusations came principally from her stepchildren, the children of her late husbands by their previous marriages.

The trial predated any formal witchcraft statute in Ireland, thus relying on ecclesiastical law which treated witchcraft as heresy rather than English common law which treated it as a felony.

Under torture, Petronilla claimed she and her mistress applied a magical ointment to a wooden beam, which enabled both women to fly.

She was then forced to proclaim publicly that Lady Alice and her followers were guilty of witchcraft. Her husband claimed to have slain only the changeling.

The gruesome nature of the case prompted extensive press coverage. The trial was closely followed by newspapers in both Ireland and Britain.

Indigenous North Americans often used burning as a form of execution, against members of other tribes or white settlers during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Roasting over a slow fire was a customary method. In Massachusetts , there are two known cases of burning at the stake. First, in , a slave named Maria tried to kill her owner by setting his house on fire.

She was convicted of arson and burned at the stake in Roxbury. Second, in , a group of slaves had conspired and killed their owner, with servants Mark and Phillis executed for his murder.

Mark was hanged and his body gibbeted , and Phillis burned at the stake, at Cambridge. The sentence was commuted on appeal to burning after death by stangulation.

In New York, several burnings at the stake are recorded, particularly following suspected slave revolt plots. In , one woman was burnt and one man hanged.

In the aftermath of the New York Slave Revolt of , 20 people were burnt one of the leaders slowly roasted, before he died after 10 hours of torture [] and during the alleged slave conspiracy of , at least 13 slaves were burnt at the stake.

They usually dealt with the chieftains and nobles in the following way: Apparently, some of the defeated rebels were burned alive, while others were gibbeted alive, left to die of thirst and starvation.

In , nine African slaves at Tobago were found complicit of murdering a white man. Eight of them had first their right arms chopped off, and were then burned alive bound to stakes, according to the report of an eyewitness.

Painting a dark picture of the condition of slaves in Suriname, he mentions in particular that as late as in , just two years previously, "three Negroes were burnt alive".

The Greek War of Independence in the s contained several instances of death by burning. When the Greeks in April captured a corvette near Hydra, the Greeks chose to roast to death the 57 Ottoman crew members.

After the fall of Tripolitsa in September , European officers were horrified to note that not only were Muslims suspected of hiding money being slowly roasted after having had their arms and legs cut off but, in one instance, three Muslim children were roasted over a fire while their parents were forced to watch.

On their part, the Ottomans committed many similar acts; for example, in retaliation they gathered up Greeks in Constantinople, throwing several of them into huge ovens, baking them to death.

Tulayha had a strong following which was, however, soon quashed in the so-called Ridda Wars. He himself escaped, though, and later was reconverted to Islam, but many of his rebel followers were burnt to death; his mother chose to embrace the same fate.

A number of monks are said to have been burnt alive in Tunis and Morocco in the 13th century. In , two English monks, Brothers Rodulph and Berengarius, after having secured the release of some 60 captives, were charged with being English spies, and were burnt alive on 9 September.

In , Brothers Patrick and William, again having freed captives, but also sought to proselytize among Muslims, were burnt alive in Morocco.

In , 11 Catholic monks were burnt alive in Tunis. Several other cases are reported. The French traveller Jean de Thevenot , traveling the East in the s, says: A Turke forsaking his Fayth and a Christian speaking or doing anything against the law of Mahomett are burnt with fyer.

De Thevenot says Christians committing blasphemy against Islam were impaled, rather than burnt, if they do not convert to Islam.

Considering these heretical, he reviled them with curses. While preparing the fire for their execution, Fahreddin accidentally set fire to his beard.

However the Hurufis were burnt to death. John Braithwaite , staying in Morocco in the late s, says that apostates from Islam would be burnt alive:.

THOSE that can be proved after Circumcision to have revolted, are stripped quite naked, then anointed with Tallow, and with a Chain about the Body, brought to the Place of Execution, where they are burnt.

Similarly, he notes that non-Muslims entering mosques or being blasphemous against Islam will be burnt, unless they convert to Islam. His widow made her woes clear in a letter to the British.

In in Ifrane , Morocco, 50 Jews preferred to be burned alive, rather than convert to Islam. He was ordered to be burnt alive unless he converted to Islam, but he refused and was therefore executed on 14 July During his short, violent reign he seized for example, the two interpreters for the Dutch and English consuls, both of them Jews, and roasted them over a slow fire, on charges of conspiracy and espionage.

During a famine in Persia in , the government took severe measures against those trying to profiteer from the misfortune of the populace.

Restaurant owners found guilty of profiteering were slowly roasted on spits, and greedy bakers were baked in their own ovens. A physician, Dr C.

Just prior to my first arrival in Persia, the "Hissam-u-Sultaneh", another uncle of the king, had burned a priest to death for a horrible crime and murder; the priest was chained to a stake, and the matting from the mosques piled on him to a great height, the pile of mats was lighted and burnt freely, but when the mats were consumed the priest was found groaning, but still alive.

The previous cases concern primarily death by burning through contact with open fire or burning material; a slightly different principle is to enclose an individual within, or attach him to, a metal contraption which is subsequently heated.

In the following, some reports of such incidents, or anecdotes about such are included. Perhaps the most infamous example of a brazen bull , which is a hollow metal structure shaped like a bull within which the condemned is put, and then roasted alive as the metal bull is gradually heated up, is the one allegedly constructed by Perillos of Athens for the 6th-century BC tyrant Phalaris at Agrigentum , Sicily.

As the story goes, the first victim of the bull was its constructor Perillos himself. The historian George Grote was among those regarding this story as having sufficient evidence behind it to be true, and points particularly to that the Greek poet Pindar , working just one or two generations after the times of Phalaris refers to the brazen bull.

A bronze bull was, in fact, one of the spoils of victory when the Carthaginians conquered Agrigentum. About years later, for example, in AD , it can be read in an old chronicle about the Visigoths on the Iberian Peninsula and the south of France:.

Burdunellus became a tyrant in Spain and a year later was On 26 March Stewart had a red hot iron crown placed upon his head, was cut in pieces alive, his heart was taken out, and then thrown in a fire.

A papal nuncio , the later Pope Pius II witnessed the execution of Stewart and his associate Sir Robert Graham , and, reportedly, said he was at a loss to determine whether the crime committed by the regicides, or the punishment of them was the greater.

He was bound to a glowing iron throne and a likewise hot iron crown was placed on his head, and he was roasted to death.

In a few English 18th- and 19th-century newspapers and magazines, a tale was circulated about the particularly brutal manner in which a French midwife was put to death on 28 May in Paris.

One detailed account of her supposed execution runs as follows:. A gibbet was erected, under which a fire was made, and the prisoner being brought to the place of execution, was hung up in a large iron cage, in which were also placed sixteen wild cats, which had been catched in the woods for the purpose.

No one however dared to afford her the least assistance; and she continued in this wretched situation for the space of thirty-five minutes, and then expired in unspeakable torture.

At the time of her death, twelve of the cats were expired, and the other four were all dead in less than two minutes afterwards.

However cruel this execution may appear with regard to the poor animals, it certainly cannot be thought too severe a punishment for such a monster of iniquity, as could calmly proceed in acquiring a fortune by the deliberate murder of such numbers of unoffending, harmless innocents.

And if a method of executing murderers, in a manner somewhat similar to this was adapted in England, perhaps the horrid crime of murder might not so frequently disgrace the annals of the present times.

The English story is derived from a pamphlet published in The Spanish in 16th-century Americas gave horrified reports that the Spanish who had been captured by the natives who had learnt of the Spanish thirst for gold had their feet and hands bound, and then molten gold poured down their throats as the victims were mocked: From the 19th century reports from the Kingdom of Siam present day Thailand stated that those who have defrauded the public treasury could have either molten gold or silver poured down their throat.

Some monarchs, it appears, had ordained pouring molten lead down the throats of those who drank anyway, "but it has been found necessary to relax this severity, in order to conciliate the army" [].

Shah Safi I of Persia is said to have abhorred tobacco, and apparently in , he prescribed the punishment of pouring molten lead into the throats of smokers.

According to historian Pushpa Sharma, stealing a horse was considered the most heinous offence within the Mongol army, and the culprit would either have molten lead poured into his ears, or alternatively, his punishment would be the breaking of the spinal cord or beheading.

Apparently, for many centuries, a tradition of devotional self-immolation existed among Buddhist monks in China. One monk who immolated himself in AD , explained his intent a year before, in the following manner:.

The body is like a poisonous plant; it would really be right to burn it and extinguish its life. I have been weary of this physical frame for many a long day.

I vow to worship the buddhas, just like Xijian. There are demonic people Those who look on are overawed and consider it the attainment of enlightenment.

In the first half of the 17th century, Japanese authorities sporadically persecuted Christians, with some executions seeing persons being burnt alive.

At Nagasaki in , for example, some 25 monks were burnt alive, [] and in Edo in , 50 Christians were burnt alive. Even fateful encounters with cannibals are recorded: In , such was also the end of a previous bishop, Vincent de Valle Viridi.

In , the missionary John Watsford wrote a letter about the internecine wars on Fiji , and how captives could be eaten, after being roasted alive:.

At Mbau, perhaps, more human beings are eaten than anywhere else. A few weeks ago they ate twenty-eight in one day. They had seized their wretched victims while fishing, and brought them alive to Mbau, and there half-killed them, and then put them into their ovens.

Some of them made several vain attempts to escape from the scorching flame. The actual manner of the roasting process was described by the missionary pioneer David Cargill, in When about to be immolated, he is made to sit on the ground with his feet under his thighs and his hands placed before him.

He is then bound so that he cannot move a limb or a joint. In this posture he is placed on stones heated for the occasion and some of them are red-hot , and then covered with leaves and earth, to be roasted alive.

When cooked, he is taken out of the oven and, his face and other parts being painted black, that he may resemble a living man ornamented for a feast or for war, he is carried to the temple of the gods and, being still retained in a sitting posture, is offered as a propitiatory sacrifice.

The first reliable evidence for the practice of sati appears from the time of the Gupta Empire AD , when instances of sati began to be marked by inscribed memorial stones.

According to one model of history thinking, the practice of sati only became really widespread with the Muslim invasions of India, and the practice of sati now acquired a new meaning as a means to preserve the honour of women whose men had been slain.

Sashi lays out the argument, "The argument is that the practice came into effect during the Islamic invasion of India, to protect their honor from Muslims who were known to commit mass rape on the women of cities that they could capture successfully.

The British began to compile statistics of the incidences of sati for all their domains from and onwards. The official statistics for Bengal represents that the practice was much more common here than elsewhere, recorded numbers typically in the range per year, up to the year , when the British authorities banned the practice.

Jauhar was a practice among royal Hindu women to prevent capture by Muslim conquerors. The practice of burning widows has not been restricted to the Indian subcontinent; at Bali , the practice was called masatia and, apparently, restricted to the burning of royal widows.

Although the Dutch colonial authorities had banned the practice, one such occasion is attested as late as in , probably for the last time.

Hahn [] wrote that within the O-ndnonga tribe among the Ovambo people in modern-day Namibia , abortion was not used at all in contrast to among the other tribes , and that furthermore, if two young unwed individuals had sex resulting in pregnancy, then both the girl and the boy were "taken out to the bush, bound up in bundles of grass and In , Sir Benjamin Hammett introduced a bill into Parliament to end the practice of judicial burning.

He explained that the year before, as Sheriff of London, he had been responsible for the burning of Catherine Murphy , found guilty of counterfeiting , but that he had allowed her to be hanged first.

He pointed out that as the law stood, he himself could have been found guilty of a crime in not carrying out the lawful punishment and, as no woman had been burnt alive in the kingdom for more than half a century, so could all those still alive who had held an official position at all of the previous burnings.

Ferencz , one of the prosecutors in the Nuremberg trials who, in May , investigated occurrences at the Ebensee concentration camp , and narrated them to Tom Hofmann, a family member and biographer.

He was completely outraged at what the Nazis had done there. When people discovered a SS guard who attempted to flee, they tied him to one of the metal trays used to transport bodies into the crematorium.

They then proceeded to light the oven, and slowly roast the SS guard to death, taking him in and out of the oven several times.

Ferencz said to Hofmann that at the time, he was in no position to stop the proceedings of the mob, and frankly admitted that he had not been inclined to try.

Hofmann adds, "There seemed to be no limit to human brutality in wartime. During the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after the end of World War II , a number of massacres against the German minority occurred.

In one case in Prague in May , a Czech mob hanged several Germans upside down on lampposts, doused them in fuel and set them on fire, burning them alive.

The victim may take up to 20 minutes to die, suffering severe burns in the process. The method was widely used in Haiti and South Africa.

In Rio de Janeiro, Brazil , burning people standing inside a pile of tires is a common form of murder used by drug dealers to punish those who have supposedly collaborated with the police.

This form of burning is called micro-ondas microwave oven. During the Guatemalan Civil War the Guatemalan Army and security forces carried out an unknown number of extrajudicial killings by burning.

The two were interrogated, tortured for four days, and burned alive. In April , 13 members of a Quanjobal Pentecostal congregation in Xalbal, Ixcan , were burnt alive in their church by the Guatemalan Army.

On 31 August , a Mexican man, Rodolfo Soler Hernandez, was burned to death in Playa Vicente, Mexico , after he was accused of raping and strangling a local woman to death.

Local residents tied Hernandez to a tree, doused him in a flammable liquid and then set him ablaze. His death was also filmed by residents of the village.

Shots taken before the killing showed that he had been badly beaten. On 5 September , Mexican television stations broadcast footage of the murder.

Locals carried out the killing because they were fed up with crime and believed that the police and courts were both incompetent.

Footage was also shown in the shockumentary film, Banned from Television. The mob alleged that Torres had attempted to rob passengers on a bus.

Torres was beaten, doused with gasoline, and set on fire, but was able to put the fire out before sustaining life-threatening burns. Police intervened and arrested Torres.

Torres was forced to go topless throughout the ordeal and subsequent arrest, and many photographs were taken and published. Approximately people were lynched in Guatemala in , of whom 45 died.

In May , a sixteen-year-old girl was allegedly burned to death in Rio Bravo by a vigilante mob after being accused by some of involvement in the killing of a taxi driver earlier in the month.

The two were searched and beaten before being doused in gasoline and burned alive by Chilean troops. Rojas was killed, while Quintana survived but with severe burns.

During the New Mexico State Penitentiary riot , a number of inmates were burnt to death by fellow inmates, who used blow torches.

Modern burnings continued as a method of lynching in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in the South. One of the most notorious extrajudicial burnings in modern history occurred in Waco, Texas on 15 May Jesse Washington , an African-American farmhand , after having been convicted of the rape and subsequent murder of a white woman, was taken by a mob to a bonfire, castrated, doused in coal oil , and hanged by the neck from a chain over the bonfire, slowly burning to death.

My picture is to the left with a cross over it. This attracted international condemnation and is remembered as the " Waco Horror ".

In South Africa , extrajudicial executions by burning were carried out via " necklacing ", wherein rubber tires filled with kerosene or gasoline are placed around the neck of a live individual.

The fuel is then ignited, the rubber melts, and the victim is burnt to death. It was reported that in Kenya , on 21 May , a mob had burned to death at least 11 accused witches.

Dr Graham Stuart Staines , an Australian Christian missionary , and his two sons Philip aged ten and Timothy aged six , were burnt to death by a gang while the three slept in the family car a station wagon , at Manoharpur village in Keonjhar District, Odisha, India on 22 January Four years later, in , a Bajrang Dal activist, Dara Singh , was convicted of leading the gang that murdered Staines and his sons, and was sentenced to life in prison.

Staines had worked in Odisha with the tribal poor and lepers since Some Hindu groups made allegations that Staines had forcibly converted or lured many Hindus into Christianity.

On 19 June , the Taliban , at Sadda, Lower Kurram, Pakistan, burned three truck drivers of the Turi tribe alive after attacking a convoy of trucks en route from Kohat to Parachinar , possibly for supplying the Pakistan Armed Forces.

The pilot was captured when his plane crashed near Raqqa , Syria, during a mission against IS in December On 20 January , a year-old woman, Ranjeeta Sharma, was found burning to death on a road in rural New Zealand.

The police confirmed the woman was alive before being covered in an accelerant and set on fire. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the horror film, see Burned at the Stake. For the book about honor killing, see Burned Alive. Persecution of Christians in Japan. Senusret I incident, p.

Callistratus , sections The full severity of the law was to be kept, however, for slaves. Arno Press — via Internet Archive. Retrieved 20 October Then, the pitch was ignited, and the person was burnt alive on a pyre as well.

Oehlschlaeger , p. See modern monograph Rapley , in particular pp. Avvakum and three fellow prisoners were led from their icy cells to an elaborate pyre of pinewood billets and there burned alive.

The tsar had finally rid himself of "this turbulent priest" , Wood , p. See, Miller , p. Cameron, Sela , p. Kleines Wunder an der Moldau Welt.

Archived from the original on 25 September Retrieved 6 July Retrieved 13 August Shoichet and Richard Beltran,. Chile, 12 September Эхо Москвы in Russian.

Retrieved 20 October — via www. The victims are shown burning to death in the last three minutes of the film.

The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 27 September Daily Life During the Spanish Inquisition. The Trial of the Templars.

Ben-Menahem, Hanina author, ed. Windows Onto Jewish Legal Culture: Burning for the Buddha: Self-Immolation in Chinese Buddhism. University of Hawaii Press.

Witch Hunts in Europe and America: Calvert, James; Rowe, George S. Fiji and the Fijians: An Anthology of Historical Sources.

Evangelical Magazine and Missionary Chronicle. The Purging of Muslim Spain. The Devastation of the Indies: The history of the revolutions in the empire of Morocco.

Studies on the Sicilian Ethos. A; Dynes, Wayne R. History of Homosexuality in Europe and America. Basingstoke and New York: Cummins, Thomas; Cole, Martin W.

The Idol in the Age of Art: Objects, Devotions and the Early Modern World. Crime and Punishment in Ancient India: Stadtjournal mit Informationen aus dem Wartburgkreis.

Archived by the Modernist Journals Project. No Armor for the Back: Baptist Prison Writings, ss. Encyclopaedia Perthensis; or, Universal dictionary of Knowledge.

A Social History of the Deccan, The Golden Age of India. Feek, Belinda 24 January A Journey To Persia. The Acts and Monuments of John Foxe: A New and Complete Edition.

Veja on-line 30 January Retrieved 8 October The Story of the Gunpowder Plot. Terror in the Land of the Holy Spirit: Byzantium in the Seventh Century: The Transformation of a Culture.

Frank Cass and Company Limited. Medieval Romance and the Politics of Cultural Fantasy. Roter Hahn und Rotes Kreuz: BoD Books on Demand. A history of the Jews in North Africa: From the Ottoman conquests to the present time.

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